AEC Carbone fiber reinforcement system

*more about products*

Speciality of material

Strengthening of carbon fiber which was created by the US and Japan is applicable for civil engineering recently. It is well applicable for strengthening of columns. Strength of encirclement which is caused by viscidity will strengthen toughness of columns to reinforce the ability earthquake-resistant and compress-resistant.



Speciality:

1.High performance

Strength of carbon fiber is always higher than of steel. Even strength of some is quadruple of strength of steel.

2.To reinforce the toughness of section

Carbon fiber is high-strength material. It is fit for current standard of earthquake-resistant because of its high strength of encirclement which will reinforce toughness of construction when it is applied to strengthen column.

3.Light weight

Carbon fiber is lighter than aluminium. Earthquake force caused by carbon fiber is enough low for its light weight. So, carbon fiber is a very good material for reinforcement.

4.Not to change the shape of column before

Carbon fiber doesn’t change the shape of column before when they are reinforced, even the shape of square, rectangle, hexagon and others.

5.To hardly be influenced by space

Carbon fiber work well in small space even only 10cm-high space

6.Good permanence and corrosive resistant

Carbon fiber have good resistance capability to salt, soil and corrosive condition.


How to use

Step by step:
1.Surface treatment

  1. To abrade the surface of concrete structure and do milling with grinding wheel machine, and clear out sand caused by weathering, dissociative lime, mould separating reagent, cement separated, part brushed and dunghill etc.

  2. To clear out powder and loose block on the surface with injector without air pressure, grinding wheel machine and brush. To make it dry enough after washed with water.
2.Repair of section

  1. To clear out the surface of concrete structure (desquamation, hole, honeycomb, corrosive parts etc.). To make rust protection treatment if there are any rebar exposed, then, to repair them with epoxy-resin slurry and other whose strength are equal to strength of concrete or higher.

  2. Those cracks are injected with epoxy resin.

  3. To make water stopping treatment if those cracks leak.
3.To make surface flat

  1. To cut away plumpness of surface with cutter or grinding wheel machine, and fill up the sunken with epoxy resin or resin-slurry.

  2. To treat plump corners (r>=mm), and fill up corners sunken.

4.Brushing with primer

Don't operate when rain or dew possibly or temperature below 5℃. To use appropriate epoxy resin after temperature and humidity are confirmed.

  1. To mix round reagent and hardener appropriate with portable auto-blender in the pail, and make them well-proportionable. To mix them appropriately, and don’t use it if it is overtime (according to the introduction of products).

  2. To brush uniformly with brush wheel, and brush again according to spot condition (after surface curing time). Amount of use varies with the direction of operation and the coarseness of surface.

  3. Harding time is about 3~12h by touch with fingers.
5.To affix with unilateral carbon fiber

Don't operate when rain or dew possibly or temperature below 5℃. To use appropriate epoxy resin after temperature and humidity are confirmed.

  1. CFRP patch is cut into parts in the light of design previous. The length of 2m or below is appropriate. Amount of use is in terms of requirement for good storage.

  2. Harding time is ensure by touch with fingers. When primer has been made over a week, brush the surface of operation flatly with cement.

  3. To mix round reagent and hardener appropriate with portable auto-blender in the pail, and make them well-proportionable. To mix them appropriately, and don’t use what is overtime (according to the introduction of products).

  4. To brush uniformly epoxy resin on the surface of primer with brush wheel. Amount of use varies with the direction of operation and the coarseness of surface. TO use heavy at the corners.

  5. After affix unilateral CFRP patch on the surface of epoxy resin, tear down the protection paper. Then, mop the surface of patch twice and thrice along the direction of unilateral CFRP patch with brush wheel and rubber knife to make patch permeant and avoid air bladder.

  6. To mop flatly with wheel and rubber knife in 30min, if CFRP thread plump or rupture.

  7. To brush resin on the surface of CFRP patch (the means is similar to means e), to mop along the direction of unilateral fiber with brush and rubber knife to make patch permeant well.
  8. To repeat means d~g when affix patch twice or more.

6.Maintaining

When work out of door, use plastic film to protect from rain, sand, dust etc.

  1. After operation of unilateral CFRP patch is finished and CFRP patch feel dry with fingers, cover it with plastic film which can't touch the surface of operation.

  2. To cover it over 24h.

  3. When average temperature is 10℃, maintaining time is not less than two weeks.
    When average temperature is 20℃, maintaining time is not less than one week.
      

7.Protection of surface

  1. CFRP itself has the function what can prevent ultraviolet radiation to avoid resin damaged. When surface of operation is irradiated, it is appropriate to spread perdurable dope and resin slurry.

  2. To spread protection after resin’ surface curing time.

  3. To work according to standard of different dope.


 

Requirement

 
1.About temperature

Viscidity of primer and epoxy will be up when cool. So, rigidification will become slow and don't rigidify completely. Don't operate below 5℃.

2.About humidity

Water is harmful to attaching of the primer and epoxy resin. To make water- stopping treatment if some cracks leak. Don't operate when dew possibly.

3.Surface treatment

To cut away the plumpness of surface and fill up the sunken with epoxy resin or resin-slurry. The radius of plump corners is not less than 10mm with 1mm’ max-error.

4.Use of primer and epoxy resin

To adjust viscidity by temperature up, and don't dilute it with organic reagent. To mix reagent and hardener appropriately, and don't use it if it is overtime.

5.About CFRP

Don't fold CFRP patch at random. To leave 10cm-length along the direction of unilateral fiber to connect with the next when to attach, and needn't do it along the other direction.

 

Contents
1.0 Brief introduction
1.1 Influence that cracks cause to building
1.2 Form of cracks and repair occasion
1.3 Usual cracks repair methods
2.0 Introduction on our products series
2.1 Products series on injecting method of A&GOOD AE150
2.2 Products series on high-pressure injecting method of A&GOOD AS2000
2.3 Products series on A&GOOD V-Cut repair method
3.0 Feasibility on Products series' application
4.0 Step on repair methods
4.1 AE150 continual pressure injecting method
4.2 AS2000 high-pressure injecting method
4.3 V-Cut cracks repair method
5.0 Notice on use of crack repair methods
5.1 Crack action of general concrete members
5.2 Material action
6.0 Notice on crack repair construction
6.1 Epoxy resin and amic polymer series
6.2 Cement series
7.0 Engineering quality control & check and accept
7.1 AE150 continual pressure injecting method
7.2 AS2000 high-pressure injecting method
7.3 V-Cut cracks repair method
8.0 Engineering quality checking up
8.1 Before construction
8.2 When construction
8.3 After construction
1.0 Brief introduction
Cracks will occur on roadway, bridge, tunnel, dam and other building because building aging (efflorescence, ultraviolet radiation, acid rain action), inappropriate design, improper material usage when changing load, bad construction, asymmetric sinking of base, earthquake, fire etc. Influence that cracks cause to building is important. With time passing and because of harmful substance inrushing, cracks enlarge and become bad gradually. Then, building' performance of usage will play down and life of service will shorten, Even it will cause collapse of building, and become unsafe.
1.1 Influence that cracks cause to building
Influence that cracks cause to building is divided up five aspects:
  1. Influence that cracks cause to rigidity of whole structure
    When cracks appear, structure rigidity, shear strength, tension strength and moment strength will lack. Stress will be distributed again, and destroy continually even members will collapse.
  2. Rigidity of concrete decrease
    Cracks make available section of member damage and stiffness of section lack, so, flection of member increase and the probability of shake failure will enhance. At one time, because structure rigidity reduce, stress will be distributed again that make cracks enlarge and develop continually. When cracks run through members, section rigidity of concrete will be out of action and steel bars will support all loads, and members are in the danger of collapse.
  3. Strength of steel bars decrease
    Cracks make strength of steel bars decrease, and besides, they make steel bars rust, hydrogenate and embrittle, and decrease grasp force between steel bars and concrete, decrease tension strength of steel bars too. Hydrogenation and embritlement can make ductibility of bars lower and bars have a tendence to be similar with to brittle material, so, it is dangerous that there is a warning before members failure.
  4. Water-seal performance reducing
    As a result of water-seal performance' falling quickly, acid and alkali stuff corrade into concrete member that make steel bars rust quickly and make concrete acid. So building will be damaged highly.
  5. Influence that cracks cause to permanence
    Influence that cracks cause to permanence is mainly to make concrete acid quickly and make steel bars rust quickly, and decorated layer and protected layer flake off because concrete have gone moldy by leaking and seeping, then, life of building will become short. So, in order to hold out safety and life of building, we must repair cracks. Reference to standard of Occident, Japan (the below list)
Country Presenter The maximal crack width allowed (mm)
Japan Ministry of Communication
Industry code of Japan
Construction near bay    
RC tube under centrifugal force 0.25
Members under advised moment 0.05
After releasing advised load and moment    
France Brcard     0.4
Sweden     Roads and bridges only under basic load 0.3
Basic load plus half of live load 0.4
US ACI Members indoor Members outdoor 0.38
Russia Concrete code     0.2
Europe UCI Members under corrosiveness 0.1
General members no protected 0.2
General members protected 0.3
ACI Standard in terms of permanence:
The maximal width of cracks allowed according to demand of perdurability
[AC1224COMMITTEE]

Environment of construction

The maximal crack width allowed (mm)

In dry air or covered by protection surface

0.40

In wet air and soil

0.3

When touching reagent of coolant-resistant

0.175

In wet and dry environment which acted again and again by seawater and sea breeze

0.15

 Member made by water-resistant material

0.10

[CEB.FIP international code]

Environment

Support dead load and long term load synchronously

Support dead load and adverse load synchronously

Members exposed to harmful environment

0.3

0.2

Members protected

0.2

0.3

Members no protected

0.3

According to aspect requirement

1.2 Form of cracks and repair occasion
Generally, cracks are static or dynamic. It is easy to deal with static cracks, because the width and depth of cracks is stable, and we may make any treatment according to different impersonal factors and material. As for dynamic cracks, at first, we should get rid of those factors what caused cracks, or set up flex-sew equipment to make cracks be controlled to avoid new cracks by new stress. Then, we should treat them according to the method of static cracks treatment to insure design life and safety of structures. So, much investigation and research should be finished before cracks come into being, and present treatment method in time to avoid serious aftereffects.
1.3 Usual cracks repair methods
Repair methods were divided into surface repair and interior injecting repair according to different repair position, or dry work and high wet work (or heavy leak). The repair effect is influenced by materials and tools used. So, it can't be neglect how to choose appropriate materials and tools.
Usual cracks repair methods are divided:
  1. Continual pressure injecting method
    We should inject material into members with continual pressure (0.2mpa ~ 0.5mpa) in limited time. Our material can seep through thin, deep cracks because they is high fluidity (low viscidity), non-shrinking, high adhesive strength, high compressive strength, high bend strength and a long time used. And they can fill up cracks. The method often is used in many main structures that need to require safety
  2. High-pressure injecting method
    We should inject material into members with high pressure (20mpa ~ 40mpa) in limited time. The method is suitable to continual wall of the underground, and we may use various materials according to spots.
  3. V-Cut cracks repair method
    Cut a hole or a V-groove with diamond cut-machine; then, fill it up with elastic paint or epoxy resin; finally, cover the work surface with glass fiber or elastic paint. The method often is used in brick wall,cellularity concrete and dry-shrinking cracks between partition and concrete.
2.0 Introduction on our products series
This chapter' content includes AE150 continual compressive injecting system, AS2000 high-pressure injecting system and V-Cut surface repair system.
2.1 Products series on injecting method of A&GOOD AE150
AE111, AE160, AE150, AE151, AE152, AE153, AC810, AC100

2.1.1 Concrete Adhesive(Sealant)AE111AB (N)Normal (F) Fast Dry

Density

1.4kg/L

Operated time

General (N)

Fast Dry (F)

20

120min

30min

30

40min

15min

Compressive strength

General (N)

Fast dry (F)

8h

40 N/mm2

50 N/mm2

ASTM C348-92

16h

50 N/mm2

55 N/mm2

ASTM C348-92

7days

60 N/mm2

60 N/mm2

ASTM C348-92

Tensile strength

10 N/mm2

ASTM C190-85

Bend strength

15 N/mm2

ASTM C109-92

Shear strength

10 N/mm2

ASTM D1002-72


Advantage:
  • High adhibition strength --Have a good bond to materials except for PVC
  • High strength -- about 5600psi in 8 hours
  • No drooping -- can be used on the vertical plane or fall plane

2.1.2 Crack Injection Resin AE160AB


Appropriate to general concrete structure where cracks is not more than 1.5mm.
Density 1~1.1kg/L
Operated time 20 120min
Viscidity 20 400~500cps
Compressive strength 7 days later 60 N/mm2 ASTM C348-92
Tensile strength 7 days later 20 N/mm2 ASTM C190-85
Bend strength 7 days later 40 N/mm2 ASTM C109-92
Shear strength 7 days later 12 N/mm2 ASTM D1002-72

Advantage:
  • Non-shrinking-no chap like cement shrinking
  • Well fluidity-can be applied to any cracks and little hole
  • Changeless packaging,used conveniently anywhere and anytime
  • Low or high pressure injecting method are all able to be well applied
  • High adhibition strength
  • High strength
  • Water-repellent,good permanence,to protect steel bars from corrading

2.1.3 Dual axes continual-pressure injector AE150


AE150 repair method is the best method to repair cracks with injector among all methods of cracks repair in important structures. Its advantages are stated:
  • Reagent is filled up well according to graduation against waste of reagent
  • Press well, and press according to design with AE153
  • The dosage injected can be measure accurately for being checked up
  • Replacing injectors easily
  • The process of pressing is easy to operate, and only need to hang AE153
  • Continual pressure make reagent go deep into minute cracks, and have no fake saturation
  • The injecting pressure is lower than concrete strength, and don't damage building again.

2.1.4 Dual axes continual-pressure injector base AE151


Used in common concrete plane for cracks injecting.

2.1.5 Dual axes continual-pressure injector right-angle base AE152


Used in common concrete vertical angle for cracks injecting.

2.1.6 Dual axes continual-pressure injector rubber band AE153 for pressing


Used for dual axes continual-pressure injector AE150, it has a strength of 0.5kg/cm2/bar when it is pulled to 16cm that is the length between two hooks of injector when reagent was filled 30ml.

2.1.7 Super- particulate non-shrinking cement AC810


Used in common concrete when the width of cracks is more than 1.5mm. It is difficult to go deep into thin-sand layer whose infiltration coefficient is lower than 5×10cm/s to common cement slurry, and can't go deep into cracks whose width is lower than 0.2mm too, because the diameter of common cement granule is between 40μm and 100μm.
The diameter of 50% super-particulate cement granule is between 4μm and 6μm, and the biggest is 30μm, and compare-surface area is 8000cm2/g. They are much smaller than common cement' diameter, so, super-particulate cement can be injected well into small cracks whose infiltration coefficient is 10-3~10-4cm/s.
Aspect
Gray super mote
Fluidity
Water-cement ratio: 0.4
Fluidity data: 300mm
Specific gravity
3.0±0.1
Curing value
About 4h(according to water-cement ratio and temperature)
Thin degree
8000cm2/g(Blaine)
Compressive strength
6500psi(28days)

2.1.8 general non-shrinking cement(pre-mixed)AC100


To be apt for repairing cracks of brick and porous structure.

Items

Unit

Test value

Test method

Fluidity value

mm

>230

ASTM C230

Expandability

%

0.01~0.02

ASTM C878

Water penetrability

%

0

ASTM C243

Compressive strength

7days

N/mm2

>50

ASTM C109

28 days

>60

Bend strength

7days

N/mm2

>10

ASTM C347

28days

>12

Grasp strength

7days

N/mm2

>8

ASTM C234

28days

>9

2.2 Products series on high-pressure injecting method of A&GOOD AS2000
AS200, AS185, AS155, AS156, AS157, AS158

2.2.1 High-pressure injector AS200


Operate it with electric drill with high torsion and low rotate speed(750W,280~650r.p.m), and have a injecting pressure of 6000psi.
So, it is propitious to inject resin into structure quickly, and the effect is different if injection is different.

2.2.1 High-pressure stop control injector pinhead AS185


Fix AS185 hardly in the hole after completed drilling, then, connect AS186 and high-pressure pipe AS200. Resin is control to can't backwash because of stop-backwash installation.

2.2.1 High-pressure stop control injector pinhead AS185


Table on applications of AS155,AS156,AS157 and AS158.
Items Component Applications
AS155 Single vesicant PU
  • Used in the dry and wet cracks of concrete, completely to seal all the contact area.
  • Seals the wet suture.
  • Crack injecting when pressure groundwater
  • Can safely be used in drinking water area
  • Can use in concrete, stone, brick, artificial stone, and gesso building materials.
AS156 Dual vesicant PU
  • Basement,heavy water flow
  • Honey comb in RC structure
  • High water pressure crack injecting
AS157 Dual non-vesicant PU
  • Imperfection concrete
  • Building junctions of brick and concrete
  • Tunnel, dam
  • Pipe injecting
  • Catchwater, culvert , refrigerator
  • Trinking water tank
AS158 Dual rigidity PU
  • Imperfection structure, can directly inject into crack
  • Tunnel, dam
  • Catchwater, water tank

Table on performance of AS155, AS156, AS157 and AS158.

AS155

Single vesicant PU

Density (23℃)

1.1g/cm3

Viscidity (23℃)

250~350mPas

Gravity ratio to water after mixture

AS155:water=40:1

Density after hardening (23℃)

0.1±0.02g/cm3

Expansion ratio

10~20times

Act time(mixed with 2%water)

20~40s

Start to act

80~90s

Development time

3~4min

Hardening time

20s


AS156

Dual vesicant PU

Density(23℃)

1.1g/cm3

Viscidity(23℃)

260~370mPas

A and B ratio by mixed

A:B=10:1

Density after hardening

0.1±0.01g/cm3

Expansion ratio

15~25times

Act time(mixed with 10%water)

10~20s

Start to act

5~15s

Development time

1~2min

Hardening time

5min


AS157
dual non-vesicant PU

A glue

B glue

Density

1.03

1.09

Viscidity

500~600

100~400

Gravity ratio

2

1

Fire point(℃)

140

176

Rigidity

 

20~30

Extensibility  (%)

 

>150

Tensile strength (MPa)

 

≧26

Adhibition strength (MPa)

 

>26

Contract degree  (%)

 

<0.05

Expansion ratio

 

1.08

Hardening time

 

24h


AS158
daul rigidity PU

A glue

B glue

Density

1.1

1.01

Viscidity

250~300

300~400

Gravity ratio

1

1

Fire point(℃)

140

176

Rigidity

 

80

Extensibility  (%)

 

>103

Tensile strength (MPa)

 

26

Adhibition strength (MPa)

 

>26

Compressive strength(MPa)

 

38

Contract degree  (%)

 

<0.05

Hardening time

 

24h


2.3 Products series on A&GOOD V-Cut repair method
AE111AB, AF806

2.3.1 Concrete adhesive -AE111AB referred at 2.1.1



2.3.2 Elastic resin for filling -AF806


AF806 is a single-liquid, no drooping and high-performance amic polymer. The sealant can be fixed well on the surface of basic material, especially on the flex cracks, when different primer is used according to different material.

Remains by heated

>=93%

ASTM D2369

Tensile strength

>=20kg/cm2

ASTM D412

Extensibility

>=800%

ASTM D412

Recover ability

>=50%

ASTM D412

50%M

3~3.5kg/cm2

JIS 5758

150%M

4.5~5kg/cm2

JIS 5758



3.0 Feasibility on Products series' application
 

AE150
injecting method

AS2000
injecting method

V-cut
method

Building
of
concrete

AE160

AC810

AC100

AE160

AC810

AS155

AS156

AS157

AS158

AE111
rigid

AF806
elastic

Common
condition
 

main
structure
      t≦1.5mm

★★★★

★★

★★★

★★

★★★

minor
structure
     t>1.5mm

★★★

★★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

main
structure
      t≦3mm

★★

★★★★

★★

★★

★★★

★★★

★★

Minor
structure
     t>3mm

★★★★

★★★

★★★★

★★★

★★

window
frame

★★★

★★★

★★

★★

★★★

★★

★★

★★★

work
cracks

★★★

★★★

★★

★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★

separation
of
concrete
(comb)

★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★★

★★★

Heavy
wet
or
leakage
 

t≦3mm

★★★★

★★★

★★

★★

★★

★★★★

t<3mm

★★★

★★★★

★★★★

★★★

★★★

★★

★★★★

window
frame

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★★

★★

work
cracks

★★★

★★

★★★

★★★

★★★★

★★★

separation
of
concrete
(comb)

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★★

--

heavy
water
flow

arrange in pairs or groups
★★★★

Building
of
brick
porous concrete
dry

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

wet

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

★★★

cracks
of
brush
layer

★★★

★★★

common
light
partition

★★

★★★★


Application performance
average★;good★★;very good★★★;excellent★★★★;nonuse-

4.0 Step on repair methods
4.1 AE150 continual pressure injecting method

Carefully measure crack’ width, length and shape,confirm operation step and material used.

Use steel wire brush or grinding wheel machine etc. to rubdown the surface that will be painted with sealant, and make stiff surface be exposed.

Confirm injecting point, the distance between two cracks is about 25~30cm(almost as same as cracks’ depth)

Install bases for injecting with sealant AE111, and the center of bases tallies with the center of cracks

Seal the surface of cracks with sealant AE111 to protect resin from leaking(make a sealed belt that width is 30mm and thickness is 1~2mm)

After sealant hardened, inject resin into cracks by

AE150 continual pressure injecting method and

injecting should be done from low point to high

Point.

Remove injectors after resin has hardened

Knock down bases, and use grinding wheel machine to rubdown the surface and paint them with decorated material.

4.2 AS2000 high-pressure injecting method
The method includes high-pressure perfusion for structural cracks, high-pressure perfusion for work cracks, honeycomb perfusion (caused by bad disturbance) and perfusion for window waterproof on the outside wall.

4.2.1 high-pressure perfusion for work cracks


  1. Drill structure with 5cm~10cm distance from the left or right of the lowest spot with 30~45 degree lean and 1/2 thickness of structure. Drilling from low spot to high spot, and hole distance of 20cm to 30cm is ok. To install injector AS185 when drilling is over.
  2. To inject epoxy with high-pressure injector AS2000 from low spot to high spot after installed AS185. To inject other AS185 after find epoxy leaking from the surface of structure.
  3. To wipe out AS185 after completed injecting, and fill the holes with AE111.

Section figure of hi-pressure injecting to work cracks


Cut plane figure of hi-pressure injecting to work cracks


Notice: to drill holes with 1/2 thickness of structure

4.2.2 high-pressure perfusion for structure


  1. Drill structure (hole diameter is 12mm) with 5cm~10cm distance from the left or right of the lowest crack with 30~45 degree lean and 1/2 thickness of structure. Drilling from low spot to high spot, and hole distance of 20cm to 30cm is ok. To install injector AS185 when drilling is over. In order to make injecting well, it must be noticed to make holes and cracks section cross, because cracks often are anomalous. To inject water into holes to judge if holes and cracks crossed, if use cement material or hydrophile material.
  2. After installed AS185, inject material into holes with hi-pressure injector AS200 from low spot to high spot. Other AS185 will be injected after find injection to seep.
  3. AS185 will be removed after injecting, then seal holes with AE111.

Section figure of hi-pressure injecting to structure cracks


Cut plane figure of hi-pressure injecting to structure cracks




4.2.3 Honeycomb treatment


  1. Drilling holes with 25cm~30cm distance around honeycomb and with 1/2 thickness of structure. Then, to install pinheads for injecting and inject material required with AS2000.
  2. To inject from the lowest pinhead. After injection were filled and hardened and seeped, those higher pinheads should be injected. After injection and water reacted, all cracks will be filled and leakage will be treated well.
  3. Remove pinheads and seal holes with sealant.

Section figure of hi-pressure injecting to honeycomb


Cut plane figure of hi-pressure injecting to honeycomb



Leakage treatment for cracks of windows frame


  1. To confirm that leakage spot is under window frame,according to standard windows, then install AS185 injector under the angles of window frame whose distance is 5cm~10cm to the concrete surface. Drilling should be leaned down.
  2. To inject water before inject medicament, then inject medicament again and again until medicament seep.
  3. Remove pinheads and seal holes with sealant.

Stop water figure for cracks of window frame (underside)


Stop water figure for cracks of window frame (whole)



4.3 V-Cut cracks repair method

4.3.1 Cut V-groove and fill it with epoxy AE111AB


  1. Cut V or U groove beyond 0.5cm wide and 1cm thick. Clean out dust with hi-pressure air machine.
  2. Fill groove with AE111AB
  3. Next day, brush surface twice with elastic dope or cement paint



4.3.2 Cut V-groove and fill it with elastic glue AF806


  1. Cut V or U groove beyond 0.5cm wide and 1cm thick.
  2. Clean out dust with hi-pressure air machine and brush groove with primer
  3. Fill groove with elastic glue
  4. Next day, stick groove with glass fiber net (according to requirement)
  5. Finally, brush surface twice with elastic dope or cement paint


5.0 Notice on use of crack repair methods
5.1 Crack action of general concrete members

5.1.1Anomalous cracks:


The width of cracks will reduce when the deepness of cracks increase.

5.1.2 Work cracks:


Often occur on the interface of new and old concrete, and the width of cracks will not obviously reduce when the deepness of cracks increase.
5.2 Material action

5.2.1 Mechanical performance of injection should be beyond that of structure. Tensile strength, bond strength and shear strength of members are very important, so, interface failure on the cracks isn't allowed when members are tested.


5.2.2 Low viscidity of injection and diameter of molecule is good. Thus, it can be confirmed that injection seeped through thin cracks.


5.2.3 Generally speaking, viscidity of injection will vary according to temperature and time varying. Viscidity of injection is the lowest when begin to react, then, viscidity is going up and occur early curdling. Viscidity of injection will increase with injecting time increase, so, pressing again and again will bring pressure what injecting required to attain good effect.




5.2.4 Injecting actionon anomalous cracks


The width of cracks will reduce when the deepness of cracks increase, so, continual pressure injecting method is very good.

6.0 Notice on crack repair construction
6.1 Epoxy resin and amic polymer series

6.1.1 The two products of impregnant aforesaid is flammable, so, it must be stored well. It is very important to prohibit fire and make fire protection.


6.1.2 Packing them on airproof, and storing them under shade. Solarization and storing under wateriness are prohibited. To use up quickly after unsealed.


6.1.3 To use them according to material statement, especially match appropriately to confirm good quality.


6.1.4 Mixture should be produced appropriately. If mill excessively, mixture will can't be used and have to make mixture again when occured early harden.


6.1.5 Keep ventilative at work room and operators must wear special clothing, cap, respirator, glove and glasses to protect themselves. Smoking and eating are prohibited on spot.


6.1.6 Recycled tools should be washed after they are used every time.


6.2 Cement series

6.2.1 They usually are apyrous, but they are cute to water. So, they can't be stored under wateriness.


6.2.2 To pack them on airproof and use up quickly after unsealed.


6.2.3 Tap water or distilled water should be used when to mix material. Water-cement ratio should be controlled according to specification, otherwise performance of material will be weak.


6.2.4 First, put 2/3 total water into pug pail; second, append powder; third, mix around them with low-speed mill machine; last, put water left into pail and mix around


6.2.5 Mixture should be produced appropriately. If mill excessively, mixture will can't be used and have to make mixture again when early harden occured.


6.2.6 Keep ventilative at work room and operators must wear special clothing, cap, respirator, glove and glasses to protect themselves.


6.2.7 Recycled tools should be washed after they are used every time.


7.0 Engineering quality control & check and accept
7.1 AE150 continual pressure injecting method

7.1.1 Clean up the spot and mark on the place for operation.


7.1.2 Burnish the surface plane.


7.1.3 Install AE150 whose distance is 25~30cm according to standard.


7.1.4 Install bases firmly.


7.1.5 Gaps between bases and cracks were sealed well.


7.1.6 Appropriate match of medicament.


7.1.7 Rightly to put medicament into injectors.


7.1.8 If injectors and bases were wrested tightly and if bases were off.


7.1.9 If to inject from low spot to high spot.


7.1.10 Observe if medicament was used up or leaked every ten minutes.


7.1.11 Install new injectors if medicament was used up until cracks were filled up and little medicament was left.


7.1.12 Keep aforesaid observation in 90 minutes.


7.1.13 Disassemble injectors and knock bases after 24 hours.


7.2 AS2000 high pressure injecting method

7.2.1 Clean up the spot and mark on the place for operation.


7.2.2 Install AE185 whose distance is 20~30cm according to standard.


7.2.3 Aperture, deepness and slope should be drilled appropriately according to design.


7.2.4 Install AS185 firmly in the holes drilled.


7.2.5 Appropriate match of medicament.


7.2.6 Press-meter of AS200 worked well.


7.2.7 Inject medicament from low spot to high spot, and inject other injector when medicament leaked from cracks.


7.2.8 If medicament leaked from AS185, to renew medicament in time.


7.2.9 Renew medicament after completed injecting if it is required.


7.2.10 Disassemble AS185 after 24 hours and sealed holes with AE111.


7.3 V-Cut cracks repair method

7.3.1 mark on the place for operation.


7.3.2 Cut V-grooves with sharp chisel or electric cutter.


7.3.3 V-grooves are cut with 5mm width and 1cm deepness, and increase width and deepness according to the ratio of 5mm width and 1cm deepness.


7.3.4 Clear V-groove with brush and dust collector.


7.3.5 Brush the surface of V-groove with special primer if use AF806 elastic resin.


7.3.6 Mix up AE111 with appropriate ratio.


7.3.7 Fill V-grooves from low spot to high spot and make them flat with reamer


7.3.8 Stick fiber net on the cracks if it was required according to design.


7.3.9 Brush elastic paint or general cement lacquer after 24 hours.


8.0 Engineering quality checking up
8.1 Before construction

8.1.1 Construction manufacturer should offer material specification and design certificate.


8.1.2 Material quantity should be assured by material manufacturer, and mustn't be Out Of Store.


8.1.3 Tools used should accord with safety and quality.


8.2 When construction

8.2.1 Material should be all carried to work spot one-off. Mnagement department must accept if material was carried to spot in batches.


8.2.2 Inform management department by written before material was carried to work spot.


8.2.3 Management department should sample material to test it according to spot.


8.3 After construction

8.3.1 To observe if cracks were filled up with eyes.


8.3.2 Confirm stop-water has been completed well if work spot leaked before.


8.3.3 Observe that honeycomb is repaired or not by knocking them with stick to listen.


8.3.4 Bore to sample with hollow drill, with 3cm diameter and 2 times diameter deepness (increase deepness according to the ratio of 3cm if need). Observe if medicament was filled up in the cracks.


8.3.5 Experimentalize to test performance of resist-press and resist-rip for checking up effect when use the method of AE150&AE160.


Reinforcement with steel plate when usages of building change or more structure strength need
Research on steel plates reinforcement of RC beams
§Steel plates---EPOXYreinforcement method

1.Figures of beam reinforcement

B-B
A-A

Installations:

Clear out part brushed
Strike cement separated, then clear out part brushed
Repair honeycomb with cement for reinforcement (AE130ABC)
Inject AE160 into cracks
Fix steel plates on beams, SS41 steel for beams, full welded
Droll holes and install chemical anchor (M12)
Seal all gap (including sides of chemical anchor and steel plates)
Inject with AE140 until air-vent overflow

Usage advice about chemical anchor:

When height of beams h≧40cm or thickness of steel plates t≧12mm, use AEG M16
When height of beams h<40cm or thickness of steel plates t<12mm, use AEG M12
When length of short side of column b≧30cm or thickness of steel plates t≧12mm, use AEG M16
When length of short side of column b<30cm or thickness of steel plates t<12mm, use AEG M16
Interlace anchor with 40cm distance up and down

 

2.Figures of column reinforcement

         
            A-A

Installations:

Clear out part brushed
Strike cement separated, then clear out part brushed
Repair honeycomb with cement for reinforcement (AE130ABC)
Inject AE160 into cracks
Fix steel plates on column, SS41 steel for column, full welded
Droll holes and install chemical anchor (M16)
Seal all gaps (including sides of chemical anchor and steel plates)
Inject with AE140 until air-vent overflow

Preface
RC construction must be reinforced to make it safe when they become danger because of fire, damage of material and load alter etc. Methods of reinforcement include altering construction system and reinforcing strength of construction component, such as beams and columns.

On altering construction system, methods of adding walls, declining shore, and columns alter load system as a whole. Thus, construction system load is shared to make old construction reinforced.

On reinforcing strength of construction component, reinforcement of steel plates (or FRP etc.) is a method in common use. Commonly, altering construction system is a economical, effectual method if the method don't change function of old construction. However, the method can generally damage function of old construction. Thus, the method is difficult to use effectually.

The method, reinforcing strength of construction component, is not economical, but it is a popular method when we consider benefit as a whole (function is more important than reinforcement cost).

The reinforcement method of construction component includes steel plates (or FRP) reinforcement and enlarging section and bar of members. When we use the method of enlarging section and bar of members, we should consider the ways of operation of interface between new and old concrete and bar's joint and fixation. The effect of operation can be evaluated by current RC theory. So, we can gain our ends for construction reinforcement.
However, enlarging section of members will reduce active space. It is difficult to accept the method because it is so expensive to buy a block of land or house in modern city. Thus, the method of steel plates (or FRP) reinforcement is more popular than that.

When we reinforce RC construction with steel plates, we should affix steel plates on two sides of beams with epoxy resin and anchor them at appropriate point with bolts to form sandwich beams. The bend theory of the sandwich beams display that the method of affixing steel plates on two sides of beams can reinforce moment and shear of old RC beams.

According to theory above and experimental result, this paper present a simple and effectual design table and design method to be adopted by construction engineers when they make some designs for reinforcement of RC beams.

 

Reinforcement of profiled bar

Reinforcement with H-profiled steel when usages of building change or more structure strength need.

§ Steps on adding H-profiled bar to reinforce

 

Install chemical anchors correctly on two sides of RC beams
Side-plate and connection-plate in term of figure above, machine them in factory as a whole and carry them to spot of operation
Install Side-plate and connection-plate at appropriate place
Install H-profiled bar, fix them and connection-plate together with high tension bolts (H.T.B)
Fill up the gaps between the top of steel beams and RC plates with epoxy resin
Fill up the gaps between side-plate and RC beams with epoxy resin
Brush steel beams with red lead paint to protect them from rusting

Add small beams to reinforce

Installations

  1. Install chemical anchors rightly on two sides of RC beams.
  2. Side-plate and connection-plate in term of figure above, machine them in factory as a whole and carry them to spot of operation.
  3. Install Side-plate and connection-plate at appropriate place.
  4. Install H-profiled bar, fix them and connection-plate together with high tension bolts (H.T.B).
  5. Fill up the gaps between the top of steel beams and RC plates with epoxy resin.
  6. Fill up the gaps between side-plate and RC beams with epoxy resin.
  7. Brush steel beams with red lead paint to protect them from rusting.


Sea-sand house

Different methods to repair sea-sand house

fire

Construction of structure repair and reinforcement after fire

Reinforcement of board

§Figure of the method of cracks repair

(A)AE160 injection for cracks (RC member, width of cracks > 0.2mm)




1. Measure width, length and shape of cracks carefully, confirm steps of construction
2. Rubdown surface of members with grinding wheel machine or steel-wire brush where will be paint with sealant

 

  


3. Confirm position to inject AE160 into cracks according to width and shape of cracks

 


4. Install and fix base with sealant

 


5. Seal the surface of cracks with sealant to prevent resin from flowing out and make a 30mm width and 3mm thickness sealed strap

 

  

 


6. Confirm sealant indurate
7. Inject AE160 with sustaining low-pressure method (AE150)

 

 

 

 

 


8. Remove injectors after resin indurate
9. Remove base and abrade sealant with grinding wheel machine to make the surface flat

 

 

 

(B) Cut v shape grooves and fill them with epoxy (be fit for brick wall)

 

 


 1. Cut v and v or u shape groove which beyond 1cm width and 1cm depth
 2. Clear dust in the grooves with high-pressure machine
 3. Fill up v shape groove with epoxy slurry
 4. Brush surface twice with elastic dope next day

 

 

(C) Cut v shape grooves and fill them with elastic glue (be fit for light brick wall or cracks between two different material)


 1. Cut v and v or u shape groove which beyond 1cm width and 1cm depth
 2. Clear dust in the grooves with high-pressure machine
 3. Fill up v shape groove with elastic glue
 4. Stick glass-fiber net next day
 5. Brush surface twice with elastic dope

 

(D) Brush and seal surface of elastic dope (be fit for brushing cracks)

 1. Clear dust and impurity on the surface of cracks
 2. Brush surface twice with elastic dope

PS. Cracks should be reinforced with fiber net in this method in terms of actual situation, and use them in turn according to spot and cracks.

Reinforcement of beams because tubes cross them or flexibility change
Steps of steel plates reinforcement of RC beams

  1. Inject epoxy resin into cracks of RC structure by low-pressure injection method.
  2. Remove pipes and wires in order to construct.
  3. Clear out brush layer to exposure RC structure.
  4. Paint and brush the surface with epoxy interface agglutinant where there are sand and cracks, next, repair it with epoxy light glue (or epoxy slurry).
  5. Install SS400-8mm steel plates and fix M12 chemical anchors with 30mm distance between anchors.
  6. Seal those sides around steel plates and anchors with epoxy sealant (AE111) to prevent from slurry overflowing and make vents beforehand on high.
  7. Inject epoxy steel plates-agglutinant from lower to higher until vents overflow.
  8. Examine effect and reinforce agglutinant until fill up.
  9. Brush resist-rust paint twice on the outside of steel plates.
  10. After complete, provide construction certificate and manufacturer' material certificate.

Honeycomb repair
§Reinforcement slurry and cracks injection method

 


Steps:
Clear out impurity to exposure RC structure
Clear out dust on the surface of concrete
Make epoxy resin and
Repair the surface of concrete and fill it with epoxy resin slurry (AE130ABC reinforcement slurry).
After AE130ABC indurate, inject AE160 into cracks
Inject AE160 through injection pipe until vent-pipe overflowing
Remove injection pipe and vent-pipe next day
§Honeycomb repair with non-shrinking hi-strength cement

 

 

 

 

 

 


Steps:

Clear out impurity to exposure RC structure

Clear out dust on the surface of concrete

Seal members with four plates, and fill up gaps around

Make a vent hole on the top and an injection hole on the bottom

Inject non-shrinking hi-strength cement (AC100 or AC110) through injection hole, until vent-pipe overflow

Cut away vent-pipe and injection pipe next day

Reinforcement of structure system

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